In the US there are over 300 insecticide products registered for treating bed bug infestations. These are the main chemical classes:

Pyrethins and pyrethroids are the most commonly used pesticides for bed bug treatment. Pyrethins are derived from chrysanthemum flowers while pyrethroids are the synthetic equivalent. They attack the nervous system of the bugs, but some bed bug populations have become resistant to these chemicals, especially older-generation products.

Silicates such as diatomaceous earth dust (DED) are desiccants, destroying the bed bugs’ waxy, protective outer coating and killing them through dehydration. The effects are physical, not neurochemical, so bed bugs cannot become resistant to these products.

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) – examples include (S)-methoprene, hydropene – are pesticides that rely on the insects biting for blood before they take effect, making them an unattractive option.

How to apply the treatment:

The application of these insecticide products is very demanding. Spraying is not sufficient (not because the insecticide isn’t “strong” enough) because bedbugs are hiding. Therefore, the proper treatment should be repeated once at 10 days to completely eradicate the bed bugs.

Spray carefully the targeted areas (this includes furniture, mattresses, wardrobes, carpets etc.) with a low-pressure pump and a special insecticide against bed bugs.

What to do after applying the treatment:

Vacuum (often) all the treated areas (furniture, mattresses, carpets, etc.), minimum 3 times in the first 24 hours after treatment. If the vacuum cleaner bags are made of paper we recommend throwing them away after each vacuuming. If they are made of fabric, we recommend emptying the content – which you properly seal and then throw it away.
All the infested linen should be washed at 60 degrees Celsius or more. If the fabric does not allow this temperature then we recommend throwing it away in a sealed bag.

The above operations are very important and are mandatory because they remove the bed bugs eggs that can hatch a new population.

It is important to note that no insecticide can get rid of these eggs!

Image Credits: Thermal Heat Kills Bed Bugs